GRE words Day 5

cavil

[ˈkævəl]

  1. 트집잡다

verb intransitive

  1. to object when there is little reason to do so; resort to trivial faultfinding; carp; quibble (at or about)

noun

  1. a trivial objection; quibble

cavil (v.)
“to raise frivolous objections, find fault without good reason,” 1540s, from Middle French caviller “to mock, jest,” from Latin cavillari “to jeer, mock; satirize, argue scoffingly” (also source of Italian cavillare, Spanish cavilar), from cavilla “jest, jeering,” which is related to calumnia “slander, false accusation” (see calumny). Related: Caviller, cavilling.


cavort

[kəˈvɔrt]

  1. 흥청거리다
  2. 뛰놀다

verb intransitive

  1. to leap about; prance or caper
  2. to romp about happily; frolic

cavort (v.)
1793, cauvaut, “to prance, bustle nimbly or eagerly,” American English, of uncertain origin, sometimes said to be an alteration of curvet “a leap by a horse,” a word from French that is related to curve (v.). Or perhaps from ca-, ka-, colloquial intensive prefix + vault (v.) “to jump, leap.” Modern form attested by 1829. Related: Cavorted; cavorting.


cede

[sid]

  1. 포기하다, (권리) 양도하다, (영토) 할양하다

verb transitive

  1. to give up one’s rights in; surrender formally
  2. to transfer the title or ownership of

cede (v.)
1630s, “to yield, give way,” from French céder or directly from Latin cedere “to yield, give place; to give up some right or property,” originally “to go from, proceed, leave,” from Proto-Italic *kesd-o- “to go away, avoid,” from PIE root *ked- “to go, yield.”

Original sense in English is now archaic; transitive sense “yield or formally surrender (something) to another” is from 1754. The sense evolution in Latin is via the notion of “to go away, withdraw, give ground.” Related: Ceded; ceding.

Latin cedere, with prefixes attached,  is the source of a great many English words: accede, concede, exceed, precede, proceed, recede, secede, etc.


celerity

[səˈlɛrɪti]

  1. 신속함

noun

  1. swiftness in acting or moving; speed

celerity (n.)
“swiftness, rapidity of motion,” late 15c., from Old French celeritee (14c., Modern French célérité), from Latin celeritatem (nominative celeritas) “swiftness,” from celer “swift,” from PIE *keli- “speeding” (source also of Sanskrit carati “goes,” Greek keles “fast horse or ship,” keleuthos “journey, road,” Lithuanian šuoliai “a gallop,” Old High German scelo “stallion”).


censorious

[sɛnˈsɔriəs]

  1. 매우 비난(비판)적인

adjective

  1. expressing censure; inclined to find fault; harshly critical

censorious (adj.)
“fond of criticizing,” 1530s, from Latin censorius “pertaining to a censor,” also “rigid, severe,” from censor (see censor (n.)). Related: Censoriously; censoriousness.


censorship

[ˈsɛnsərˌʃɪp]

  1. 검열

noun

  1. the act, system, or practice of censoring
  2. the office or term of a Roman censor
  3. Psychoanalysis
    the agency by which unpleasant ideas, memories, etc. are kept from entering consciousness, except symbolically as in dreams

censorship (n.)
1590s, “office of a censor,” from censor (n.) + -ship. Meaning “action of censoring” is from 1824.


censure

[ˈsɛnʃər]

  1. 비난하다
  2. 비난

noun

  1. a condemning as wrong; strong disapproval
  2. a judgment or resolution condemning a person for misconduct; specif., an official expression of disapproval passed by a legislature

verb transitive

  1. to express strong disapproval of

censure (n.)
late 14c., “judicial sentence,” originally ecclesiastical, from Latin censura “judgment, opinion,” also “office of a censor,” from census, past participle of censere “appraise, estimate, assess” (see censor (n.)). General sense of “a finding of fault and an expression of condemnation” is from c. 1600.

censure (v.)
1580s, “to judge, adjudge” (now obsolete); 1590s, “to criticize adversely, find fault with and condemn,” from censure (n.) or else from French censurer, from censure (n.). Related: Censured; censuring.


centrifugal

[sɛnˈtrɪfəgəl; sɛnˈtrɪfjəgəl; Chiefly British ˌ sɛntrɪˈfjugəl]

  1. 원심(성)의

adjective

  1. moving or tending to move away from a center
  2. using or acted on by centrifugal force
  3. Botany
    developing from the center outward, as certain flower clusters
  4. Physiology
    conveying away from a center; efferent

noun

  1. a machine that uses or causes centrifugal movement

centrifugal (adj.)
“flying off or proceeding out from a center,” 1690s, with adjectival suffix -al (1) + Modern Latin centrifugus, 1687, coined by Sir Isaac Newton in “Principia” (which is written in Latin), from Latin centri-, alternative combining form of centrum “center” (see center (n.)) + fugere “to flee” (see fugitive (adj.)). Centrifugal force is Newton’s vis centrifuga.


ceremonious

[ˌsɛrəˈmoʊniəs]

  1. 의식의, 지나치게 격식을 갖춘

adjective

  1. ceremonial
  2. full of ceremony
  3. characterized by conventional usages or formality; very polite
  4. excessively formal or proper

ceremonious (adj.)
1550s, “relating to outward forms or rites,” also, of persons, “punctilious in matters of formality,” from Middle French cérémonieux or directly from Late Latin caerimoniosus, from Latin caerimonia “reverent rite, sacred ceremony” (see ceremony). Meaning “full of show and ceremony” is from 1610s. Related: Ceremoniously; ceremoniousness.


certitude

[ˈsɜrtəˌtud; ˈsɜrtəˌtjud]

  1. 확신

noun

  1. a feeling of absolute sureness or conviction
  2. sureness; inevitability

certitude (n.)
“certainty, complete assurance,” early 15c., from Middle French certitude “certainty” (16c.), from Late Latin certitudinem (nominative certitudo) “that which is certain,” from Latin certus “sure, certain” (see certain).


cessation

[sɛˈseɪʃən]

  1. 중지, 중단

noun

  1. a ceasing, or stopping, either forever or for some time

cessation (n.)
mid-15c., cessacyoun “interruption, a ceasing; abdication,” from Latin cessationem (nominative cessatio) “a delaying, ceasing, tarrying,” noun of action from past participle stem of cessare “to delay” (from PIE root *ked- “to go, yield”).


cession

[ˈsɛʃən]

  1. (특히 전후 국가간 영토) 이양(양도)

noun

  1. a ceding or giving up (of rights, property, territory, etc.) to another

cession (n.)
late 14c., “a relinquishing, act of yielding,” from Old French cession “cession; death” (13c.), from Latin cessionem (nominative cessio) “a giving up, surrendering,” noun of action from past participle stem of cedere “to go away, yield” (from PIE root *ked- “to go, yield”). Related: Cessionary.


chagrin

[ʃəˈgrɪn; British ˈʃægrɪn]

  1. 화, 분함, 창피함

noun

  1. a feeling of embarrassment and annoyance because one has failed or been disappointed; mortification

verb transitive

  1. usually in the passive voice
    to cause to feel chagrin; embarrass and annoy; mortify

chagrin (n.)
1650s, “melancholy,” from French chagrin “melancholy, anxiety, vexation” (14c.), from Old North French chagreiner or Angevin dialect chagraigner “sadden,” which is of unknown origin, perhaps [Gamillscheg] from Old French graignier “grieve over, be angry,” from graigne “sadness, resentment, grief, vexation,” from graim “sorrowful,” which is perhaps from a Germanic source (compare Old High German gram “angry, fierce”).

But OED and other sources trace it to an identical Old French word, borrowed into English phonetically as shagreen, meaning “rough skin or hide” (the connecting notion being “roughness, harshness”), which is itself of uncertain origin. Modern sense of “feeling of irritation from disappointment, mortification or mental pain from the failure of aims or plans” is from 1716.

The town of Chagrin Falls in northeastern Ohio, U.S., was founded 1837 and named for the nearby falls of the Chagrin River. The source of the river name is uncertain; it might be a corruption of Seguin, the name of a Frenchman who is said to have established a trading post nearby in the 1740s.

chagrin (v.)
“vex, mortify,” 1660s (implied in chagrined), from chagrin (n.). Related: Chagrining.


challenge

[ˈtʃæləndʒ]

  1. 이의를 제기하다

noun

  1. a demand for identification
  2. a calling into question; a demanding of proof, explanation, etc.
  3. a call or dare to take part in a duel, contest, etc.
  4. anything, as a demanding task, that calls for special effort or dedication
  5. US
    an objection to a vote or to someone’s right to vote
  6. Law
    a formal objection or exception to a person who has been chosen as a prospective juror

verb transitive

  1. to call to a halt for identification
    1. to call to account
    2. to make objection to; call into question
  2. to call to account
  3. to make objection to; call into question
  4. to call or dare to take part in a duel, contest, etc.; defy
  5. to call for; make demands on
  6. US
    to object to (a vote) as not valid or (a prospective voter) as not qualified to vote
  7. to take formal exception to (a prospective juror)

verb intransitive

  1. to make, issue, or offer a challenge

challenge (n.)
early 14c., “something one can be accused of, a fault, blemish;” mid-14c., “false accusation, malicious charge; accusation of wrong-doing,” also “act of laying claim” (to something), from Anglo-French chalenge, Old French chalonge “calumny, slander; demand, opposition,” in legal use, “accusation, claim, dispute,” from Anglo-French chalengier, Old French chalongier “to accuse, to dispute” (see challenge (v.)). Accusatory connotations died out 17c. Meanings “an objection” in law, etc.; “a calling to fight” are from mid-15c. Meaning “difficult task” is from 1954.

challenge (v.)
c. 1200, “to rebuke,” from Old French chalongier “complain, protest; haggle, quibble,” from Vulgar Latin calumniare “to accuse falsely,” from Latin calumniari “to accuse falsely, misrepresent, slander,” from calumnia “trickery” (see calumny).

From late 13c. as “to object to, take exception to;” c. 1300 as “to accuse,” especially “to accuse falsely,” also “to call to account;” late 14c. as “to call to fight.” Also used in Middle English with sense “claim, take to oneself.” Related: Challenged; challenging.


champion

[ˈtʃæmpiən]

  1. 옹호하다, 지지하다

noun

  1. a valiant fighter
  2. a person who fights for another or for a cause; defender; protector; supporter
  3. a winner of first place or first prize in a competition

adjective

  1. winning or capable of winning first place; excelling over all others

verb transitive

  1. to fight for; defend; support
  2. Obsolete
    to challenge to a fight

champion (n.)
early 13c., “doughty fighting man, valorous combatant,” also (c. 1300) “one who fights on behalf of another or others, one who undertakes to defend a cause,” from Old French champion “combatant, champion in single combat” (12c.), from Late Latin campionem (nominative campio) “gladiator, fighter, combatant in the field,” from Latin campus “field (of combat);” see campus.

The word had been borrowed earlier by Old English as cempa. Sports sense in reference to “first-place performer, one who has demonstrated superiority to all others in some matter decided by public contest or competition” is recorded from 1730.

champion (v.)
“to fight for, defend, protect, maintain or support by contest,” 1820 (Scott) in a literal sense, from champion (n.). Figurative use, “maintain the cause of, advocate for” is by 1830. Earlier it meant “to challenge” (c. 1600). Related: Championed; championing.


charlatan

[ˈʃɑrlətən]

  1. 돌팔이, 사기꾼

noun

  1. a person who pretends to have expert knowledge or skill that he or she does not have; fake; mountebank

charlatan (n.)
“one who pretends to knowledge, skill, importance, etc.,” 1610s, from French charlatan “mountebank, babbler” (16c.), from Italian ciarlatano “a quack,” from ciarlare “to prate, babble,” from ciarla “chat, prattle,” perhaps imitative of ducks’ quacking. Related: Charlatanical.


chary

[ˈtʃɛri; ˈtʃæri]

  1. 조심하는, 신중한
  2. 절약하는

adjective

  1. not taking chances; careful; cautious
  2. not giving freely; sparing

chary (adj.)
Old English cearig “sorrowful, full of care,” the adjective from care (n.), q.v. Sense evolved 16c. from “full of care” to “careful.” Compare the sense evolution of careful. Meaning “sparing, frugal” is from 1560s. Cognate with Old Saxon carag, Old High German charag “full of sorrow, trouble, or care.” Related: Charily; chariness.


chasten

[ˈtʃeɪsən]

  1. 잘못을 깨닫게 하다, 훈계하다

verb transitive

  1. to punish in order to correct or make better; chastise
  2. to restrain from excess; subdue
  3. to make purer in style; refine

chasten (v.)
“inflict trouble or pain on for the purpose of correction,” 1520s, with -en (1) + the word it replaced, obsolete verb chaste “to correct (someone’s) behavior” (Middle English chastien, c. 1200), from Old French chastiier “to punish” (see chastise). Now chiefly in reference to moral discipline, divine rather than corporal punishment. Related: Chastened; chastening.


chastise

[tʃæsˈtaɪz; ˈtʃæsˌtaɪz]

  1. 체벌하다, 몹시 비난하다

verb transitive

  1. to punish, esp. by beating
  2. to scold or condemn sharply
  3. Archaic
    to chasten

chastise (v.)
“to inflict pain upon to punish and recall to duty, to punish for the purpose of correcting or reclaiming,” c. 1300, chastisen, from Old French chastiier “to warn, advise, instruct; chastise, admonish; punish; dominate, tame” (12c., Modern French châtier), from Latin castigare “to set or keep right, to reprove, chasten, to punish,” literally “to make pure” (see castigate). Or perhaps from Middle English chastien (see chasten) + -ise, though this would be early for such a native formation. The form of the modern word “is not easily accounted for” [OED]. Related: Chastised; chastising.


chauvinism

[ˈʃoʊvəˌnɪzəm]

  1. 맹목적인 애국심, 맹목적 열의

noun

  1. militant, unreasoning, and boastful devotion to one’s country; jingoism
  2. unreasoning devotion to one’s race, sex, etc. with contempt for other races, the opposite sex, etc.

chauvinism (n.)
1840, “exaggerated, blind nationalism; patriotism degenerated into a vice,” from French chauvinisme (1839), from the character Nicholas Chauvin, soldier of Napoleon’s Grand Armee, who idolized Napoleon and the Empire long after it was history, in the Cogniards’ popular 1831 vaudeville “La Cocarde Tricolore.” Meaning extended to “excessive belief in the superiority of one’s race” late 19c. in communist jargon, to (male) “sexism” late 1960s via male chauvinism (q.v.).

The name is a French form of Latin Calvinus and thus Calvinism and chauvinism are, etymologically, twins. The name was a common one in Napoleon’s army, and if there was a real person at the base of the character in the play, he has not been certainly identified by etymologists, though memoirs of Waterloo (one published in Paris in 1822) mention “one of our principal piqueurs, named Chauvin, who had returned with Napoleon from Elba,” which implies loyalty.


check

[tʃɛk]

  1. 갑자기 멈추다
  2. 제지, 억제하다

noun

  1. a sudden stop; abrupt halt
  2. any restraint or control put upon action
  3. a person or thing that restrains or controls
  4. a supervision of accuracy, efficiency, etc.
    1. a test, comparison, examination, etc. to determine if something is as it should be
    2. a standard or sample used in making such a determination
  5. a test, comparison, examination, etc. to determine if something is as it should be
  6. a standard or sample used in making such a determination
  7. a mark (✓) to show approval or verification of something, or to call attention to it
  8. US
    an identification ticket or other token enabling one to claim an item left in a checkroom, etc.
  9. US
    one’s bill at a restaurant or bar
  10. US
    a gambling chip
  11. a written order to a bank to pay the stated amount of money from one’s account
    1. a pattern of small squares like that of a chessboard
    2. one of these squares
  12. a pattern of small squares like that of a chessboard
  13. one of these squares
  14. a fabric with such a pattern
  15. a small split, crack, or chink
  16. Obsolete
    a rebuke; reprimand
  17. Chess
    the condition of a king that is in danger of capture on the opponent’s next move: when in such a condition, one’s king must, if possible,
    be protected
  18. Hockey
    a blocking or bumping of an opponent

interjection

  1. Informal
    agreed; I understand; right; OK
  2. Chess
    used to signify that one’s opponent’s king is in check

verb transitive

  1. to cause to stop suddenly; halt abruptly
  2. to hold back; restrain; control
  3. to rebuff, repulse, or rebuke
  4. to test, measure, verify, or control by investigation, comparison, or examination
  5. to mark with a check (✓)
  6. to mark with a pattern of squares
  7. US
    to deposit or receive for deposit temporarily, as in a checkroom
  8. US
    to get (esp. luggage) cleared for shipment
  9. to make chinks or cracks in
  10. US
    to plant in checkrows
  11. Chess
    to place (an opponent’s king) in check
  12. Hockey
    to block or bump (an opponent)
  13. Nautical
    to reduce the strain on (a line) by letting it out gradually

verb intransitive

  1. US
    to agree with one another, item for item
  2. US
    to investigate in order to determine the condition, validity, etc. of something
  3. US
    to draw a check on a bank account
  4. to crack in small checks
  5. to stop or halt; specif., to pause, as a hunting dog, to pick up the scent
  6. Falconry
    to turn from the pursuit of one prey to follow a lesser one (with at)
  7. US
    to decline one’s chance to open a round of betting

adjective

  1. used to check or verify
  2. having a crisscross pattern; checked

check (n.1)
c. 1300, in chess, “a call noting one’s move has placed his opponent’s king (or another major piece) in immediate peril,” from Old French eschequier “a check at chess” (also “chess board, chess set”), from eschec “the game of chess; chessboard; check; checkmate,” from Vulgar Latin *scaccus, from Arabic shah, from Persian shah “king,” the principal piece in a chess game (see shah; also compare checkmate (n.)). Also c. 1300 in a generalized sense, “harmful incident or event, hostile environment.”

As “an exposure of the king to a direct attack from an opposing piece” early 15c. When his king is in check, a player’s choices are severely limited. From that notion come the many extended senses: From the notion of “a sudden stoppage, hindrance, restraint” (1510s) comes that of “act or means of checking or restraining,” also “means of detecting or exposing or preventing error; a check against forgery or alteration.

“Hence: “a counter-register as a token of ownership used to check against, and prevent, loss or theft” (as in hat check, etc.), 1812.  Hence also the financial use for “written order for money drawn on a bank, money draft” (1798, often spelled cheque), which was probably influenced by exchequer. Hence also “mark put against names or items on a list indicating they have been verified or otherwise examined” (by 1856).

Meaning “restaurant bill” is from 1869. Checking account is attested from 1897, American English. Blank check in the figurative sense is attested by 1849 (compare carte blanche). Checks and balances is from 1782, perhaps originally suggesting machinery.

check (n.2)
“pattern of squares in alternating colors,” c. 1400, short for checker (n.1). As a fabric having such a pattern from 1610s.

check (v.1)
late 15c., in chess, “to attack the king; to put (the opponent’s king) in check;” earlier (late 14c.) in a figurative sense, “to stop, arrest; block, barricade;” from check (n.1) or Old French eschequier, from the noun in French. A player in chess limits his opponent’s ability to move when he places his opponent’s king in check.

The other senses seem all to have developed from the chess sense, or from the noun: “To arrest, stop,” then “to hold in restraint” (1620s); “to hold up or control” (an assertion, a person, etc.) by comparison with some authority or record (1690s); of baggage, etc., “to hand over in return for a check that serves as a means of identifying” (1846); “to note with a mark as having been examined, etc., mark off from a list” (1928).

Hence, to check off (1839); to check up (1889); to check in or out (in a hotel, of a library book, etc., by 1918). To check out (something) “to look at, investigate” is from 1959. Related: Checked; checking.

check (v.2)
“mark like a chessboard, incise with a pattern of squares or checks,” early 15c., from Old French eschequier (v.), from the noun in French (see check (n.1)). Related: Checking.


cherish

[ˈtʃɛrɪʃ]

  1. 소중히 여기다

verb transitive

  1. to hold dear; feel or show love for
  2. to take good care of; protect; foster
  3. to cling to the idea or feeling of

cherish (v.)
early 14c., cherischen, “hold as dear, treat with tenderness and affection,” from Old French cheriss-, present participle stem of chierir “to hold dear” (12c., Modern French chérir), from chier “dear,” from Latin carus “dear, costly, beloved” (from PIE root *ka- “to like, desire”). The Latin word also is the source of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese caro; Old Provençal, Catalan car. Meaning “indulge and encourage in the mind” is from late 14c. Related: Cherished; cherishing.


chic

[ʃik]

  1. 세련된, 우아한

noun

  1. said esp. of women or their clothes
    smart elegance of style and manner

adjective

  1. stylish in a smart, pleasing way

chic (n.)
1856, “style in fine art, artistic skill, faculty of producing excellence rapidly and easily,” from French chic “stylishness” (19c.), originally “subtlety” (16c.), which is of unknown origin. Perhaps [Klein] it is related to German Schick, Geschick “tact, skill, aptness,” from Middle Low German schikken “arrange appropriately,” or Middle High German schicken “to arrange, set in order.” Or perhaps it is from French chicane, from chicanerie “trickery” (see chicanery).

Meaning “Parisian elegance and stylishness combined with originality” is by 1882 (“Pall Mall Gazette,” 1888, calls it “an untranslatable word, denoting an indispensable quality”). As an adjective, in reference to persons, “stylish,” 1879 in English. “Not so used in F[rench]” [OED].


chicanery

[ʃɪˈkeɪnəri]

  1. 속임수

noun

  1. the use of clever but tricky talk or action to deceive, evade, etc., as in legal dealings
  2. an instance of this

chicanery (n.)
c. 1610s, “legal quibbling, sophistry, mean or petty tricks,” from French chicanerie “trickery,” from Middle French chicaner “to pettifog, quibble” (15c.), which is of unknown origin, perhaps from Middle Low German schikken “to arrange, bring about,” or from the name of a golf-like game once played in Languedoc. Also compare French chic “small, little,” as a noun “a small piece; finesse, subtlety.” Thornton’s “American Glossary” has shecoonery (1845), which it describes as probably a corruption of chicanery.


chide

[tʃaɪd]

  1. 꾸짖다

verb transitive, verb intransitive

  1. to scold; now, usually, to reprove mildly

chide (v.)
late 12c., “scold, nag, rail,” originally intransitive, from Old English cidan “to contend, quarrel, complain.” Not found outside Old English (though Liberman says it is “probably related to OHG *kîdal ‘wedge,'” with a sense evolution from “brandishing sticks” to “scold, reprove”).

Originally a weak verb, later strong constructions are by influence of ride/rode, etc. Past tense, past participle can be chided or chid or even (past participle) chidden (Shakespeare used it); present participle is chiding.


chimera

[kaɪˈmɪrə; kɪˈmɪrə]

  1. 불가능한 생각, 불가능한 희망

noun

  1. [C-]
    a fire-breathing monster, usually represented as having a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail
  2. any similar fabulous monster
  3. an impossible or foolish fancy
  4. Biology
    an organism having two or more genetically distinct types of cells due to mutation, grafting, etc.

chimera (n.)
fabulous monster of Greek mythology, slain by Bellerophon, late 14c., from Old French chimere or directly from Medieval Latin chimera, from Latin Chimaera, from Greek khimaira, name of a mythical fire-breathing creature, slain by Bellerophon, with a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a dragon’s tail; literally “year-old she-goat” (masc. khimaros), from kheima “winter season,” from PIE root *gheim- “winter.”

Supposedly a personification of snow or winter, but the connection to winter might be no more than the ancient habit of reckoning years as “winters.” It was held by the ancients to represent a volcano; perhaps it was a symbol of “winter storms” (another sense of Greek kheima)  and generally of destructive natural forces. The word was used generically for “any grotesque monster formed from parts of other animals;” hence the figurative meaning “wild fantasy” first recorded 1580s in English (13c. in French).


chivalrous

[ˈʃɪvəlrəs]

  1. 기사도적인, 용감한, 예의바른

adjective

  1. having the noble qualities of an ideal knight; gallant, courteous, honorable, etc.
  2. of chivalry; chivalric

chivalrous (adj.)
mid-14c., “pertaining to chivalry or knight-errantry,” from Old French chevaleros “knightly, noble, chivalrous,” from chevalier (see chevalier; also compare chivalry). According to OED, obsolete in English and French from mid-16c. Not revived in French, but brought back in English 1770s by romantic writers with a sense of “having high qualities (gallantry, courage, magnanimity) supposed to be characteristic of chivalry.” Related: Chivalrously; chivalrousness.


choleric

[ˈkɑlərɪk; kəˈlɛrɪk]

  1. 담즙질의, 화를 잘내는

adjective

  1. having or showing a quick temper or irascible nature
  2. Obsolete
    of or having choler, or bile

choleric (adj.)
mid-14c., colrik, “bilious of temperament or complexion,” from Old French colerique, from Late Latin cholericus, from Greek kholerikos, from Greek kholera “a type of disease characterized by diarrhea, supposedly caused by bile,” from khole “gall, bile,” so called for its color, related to khloazein “to be green,” khloros “pale green, greenish-yellow,” from PIE root *ghel- (2) “to shine,” with derivatives denoting “green, yellow,” and thus “bile, gall.” Meaning “easily angered, hot-tempered” is from 1580s (from the supposed effect of excess choler); that of “pertaining to cholera” is from 1834.


churlish

[ˈtʃɜrlɪʃ]

  1. 무례한

adjective

  1. of a churl or churls; rustic
  2. like a churl; surly; boorish
  3. stingy or mean
  4. Rare
    hard to work or manage

churlish (adj.)
late Old English cierlisc “of or pertaining to churls,” from churl + -ish. Meaning “deliberately rude, surly and sullen” is late 14c. Related: Churlishly; churlishness.


cipher

[ˈsaɪfər]

  1. 암호

noun

  1. the symbol 0, indicating a value of zero
  2. a person or thing of no importance or value
  3. see also
    1. a system of secret writing based on a key, or set of predetermined rules or symbols
    2. a message in such writing
    3. the key to such a system
  4. a system of secret writing based on a key, or set of predetermined rules or symbols
  5. a message in such writing
  6. see also
    the key to such a system
  7. an intricate weaving together of letters, as a monogram
  8. an Arabic numeral

verb intransitive, verb transitive

  1. to solve (an arithmetic problem)
  2. to write in or with a cipher (sense 3) cipher (sense 3a))

cipher (n.)
late 14c., “arithmetical symbol for zero,” from Old French cifre “nought, zero,” Medieval Latin cifra, which, with Spanish and Italian cifra, ultimately is from Arabic sifr “zero,” literally “empty, nothing,” from safara “to be empty;” a loan-translation of Sanskrit sunya-s “empty.” Klein says Modern French chiffre is from Italian cifra.

The word came to Europe with Arabic numerals. From “zero,” it came to mean “any numeral” (early 15c.), then (first in French and Italian) “secret way of writing; coded message” (a sense first attested in English 1520s), because early codes often substituted numbers for letters. Meaning “the key to a cipher or secret writing” is by 1885, short for cipher key (by 1835).

Figurative sense of “something or someone of no value, consequence, or power” is from 1570s.

cipher (v.)
also cypher, 1520s, “to do arithmetic” (with Arabic numerals), from cipher (n.). Transitive sense “reckon in figures, cast up” is from 1860. Meaning “to write in code or occult characters” is from 1560s. Related: Ciphered; ciphering.


circuitous

[sərˈkjuətəs]

  1. 빙돌아가는, 우회하는

adjective

  1. roundabout; indirect; devious

circuitous (adj.)
“going round in a circuit, indirect,” 1660s, from Medieval Latin circuitus “full of roundabout ways,” from Latin circuitus “a going round” (see circuit (n.)). Related: Circuitously; circuitousness.


circumlocution

[ˌsɜrkəmloʊˈkjuʃən]

  1. 애둘러 말하기, 장황

noun

  1. a roundabout, indirect, or lengthy way of expressing something; periphrasis
  2. an instance of this

circumlocution (n.)
“a roundabout way of speaking, studied indirection or evasiveness in speaking or writing,” c. 1400, from Latin circumlocutionem (nominative circumlocutio) “a speaking around” (the topic), from circum “around, round about” (see circum-) + locutionem (nominative locutio) “a speaking,” noun of action from past participle stem of loqui “to speak” (from PIE root *tolkw- “to speak”). A loan-translation of Greek periphrasis (see periphrasis). Related: Circumlocutionary.


circumscribe

[ˈsɜrkəmˌskraɪb; ˌ sɜrkəmˈskraɪb]

  1. 제한하다

verb transitive

  1. to trace a line around; encircle; encompass
    1. to set or mark off the limits of; limit; confine
    2. to restrict the action of; restrain
  2. to set or mark off the limits of; limit; confine
  3. to restrict the action of; restrain
  4. Geometry
    1. to draw a plane figure around (another plane figure) either to intersect each vertex of the inner figure, as a circle around a square, or to have each side of the outer figure tangent to the inner figure, as a square around a circle
    2. to enclose a solid figure within (another solid figure) in a similar manner, as a cube within a sphere or a sphere within a cube
  5. to draw a plane figure around (another plane figure) either to intersect each vertex of the inner figure, as a circle around a square, or to have each side of the outer figure tangent to the inner figure, as a square around a circle
  6. to enclose a solid figure within (another solid figure) in a similar manner, as a cube within a sphere or a sphere within a cube

circumscribe (v.)
late 14c., “to encompass; confine, restrain, mark out bounds or limits for,” from Latin circumscribere “to make a circle around, encircle, draw a line around; limit, restrain, confine, set the boundaries of,” from circum “around, round about” (see circum-) + scribere “to write” (from PIE root *skribh- “to cut”). Related: Circumscribed; circumscribing.


circumspect

[ˈsɜrkəmˌspɛkt]

  1. 신중한, 주의 깊은, 조심하는

adjective

  1. careful to consider all related circumstances before acting, judging, or deciding; cautious; careful

circumspect (adj.)
“cautious, wary,” literally “looking about on all sides,” early 15c., from Latin circumspectus “deliberate, guarded, well-considered,” past participle of circumspicere “look around, take heed,” from circum “around, round about” (see circum-) + specere “to look” (from PIE root *spek- “to observe”). Related: Circumspectly; circumspectness.


circumvent

[ˌsɜrkəmˈvɛnt; ˈsɜrkəmˌvɛnt]

  1. (법, 제한 등을) 피하다

verb transitive

  1. to surround or circle around
  2. to surround or encircle with evils, enmity, etc.; entrap
  3. to get the better of or prevent from happening by craft or ingenuity

circumvent (v.)
mid-15c., “to surround by hostile stratagem,” from Latin circumventus, past participle of circumvenire “to get around, be around, encircle, surround,” in figurative sense “to oppress, assail, cheat,” from circum “around” (see circum-) + venire “to come,” from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- “to go, come.” Meaning “to go round” is from 1840. Related: Circumvented; circumventing.


civil

[ˈsɪvəl]

  1. 민간의
  2. 정중한, 예의바른
  3. 시민의

adjective

  1. of a citizen or citizens
  2. of a community of citizens, their government, or their interrelations
  3. cultured; civilized
  4. polite or courteous, esp. in a merely formal way
  5. of citizens in procedures or matters that are not military or religious
  6. designating legally recognized divisions of time
  7. [sometimes C-]
    of or according to Roman civil law or modern civil law
  8. Law
    relating to the private rights of individuals and to legal actions involving these

civil (adj.)
late 14c., “relating to civil law or life; pertaining to the internal affairs of a state,” from Old French civil “civil, relating to civil law” (13c.) and directly from Latin civilis “relating to a society, pertaining to public life, relating to the civic order, befitting a citizen,” hence by extension “popular, affable, courteous;” alternative adjectival derivative of civis “townsman” (see city).

Meaning “not barbarous, civilized” is from 1550s. Specifically “relating to the commonwealth as secularly organized” (as opposed to military or ecclesiastical) by 1610s. Meaning “relating to the citizen in his relation to the commonwealth or to fellow citizens” also is from 1610s.

The sense of “polite” was in classical Latin, but English did not pick up this nuance of the word until late 16c., and it has tended to descend in meaning to “meeting minimum standards of courtesy.” “Courteous is thus more commonly said of superiors, civil of inferiors, since it implies or suggests the possibility of incivility or rudeness” [OED].

Civil case (as opposed to criminal) is recorded from 1610s. Civil liberty “natural liberty restrained by law only so far as is necessary for the public good” is by 1640s.


clairvoyant

[klɛrˈvɔɪənt]

  1. 천리안이 있는, 통찰력이 있는
  2. 심령술사, 영매

adjective

  1. of clairvoyance
  2. apparently having clairvoyance
  3. having great insight; keenly perceptive

noun

  1. a clairvoyant person

clairvoyant (adj.)
“having psychic gifts, characterized by powers of clairvoyance,” 1837, earlier “having insight” (1670s), from special use of French clairvoyant “clear-sighted, discerning, judicious” (13c.), from clair (see clear (adj.)) + voyant “seeing,” present participle of voir, from Latin videre “to see” (from PIE root *weid- “to see”). Related: Clairvoyantly.

clairvoyant (n.)
1834 in the psychic sense, “person supposed to possess powers of clairvoyance;” see clairvoyant (adj.). Earlier it was used in the sense “clear-sighted person” (1794). Fem. form is Clairvoyante.


clamor

[ˈklæmər]

  1. 아우성, 소란, 떠들썩한 외침
  2. (~할 것을) 강력히 요구(반대)하다

noun

  1. a loud outcry; uproar
  2. a vehement, continued expression of the general feeling or of public opinion; loud demand or complaint
  3. a loud, sustained noise

verb intransitive

  1. to make a clamor; cry out, demand, or complain noisily

verb transitive

  1. to express with, or bring about by, clamor

clamor (n.)
late 14c., “a great outcry,” also figurative, “loud or urgent demand,” from Old French clamor “call, cry, appeal, outcry” (12c., Modern French clameur), from Latin clamor “a shout, a loud call” (either friendly or hostile), from clamare “to cry out” (from PIE root *kele- (2) “to shout”).

clamor (v.)
“utter loudly, shout,” also figurative, “make importunate demands or complaints,” late 14c., from clamor (n.). Related: Clamored; clamoring.


clandestine

[klænˈdɛstɪn]

  1. 비밀의, 은밀한

adjective

  1. kept secret or hidden, esp. for some illicit purpose; surreptitious; furtive

clandestine (adj.)
“secret, private, hidden, furtive,” 1560s, from Latin clandestinus “secret, hidden,” from clam “secretly,” from adverbial derivative of base of celare “to hide” (from PIE root *kel-(1) “to cover, conceal, save”), perhaps on model of intestinus “internal.” Related: Clandestinely. As a noun form, there is awkward clandestinity (clandestineness apparently being a dictionary word).


clannish

[ˈklænɪʃ]

  1. 씨족의, 당파적인

adjective

  1. of a clan
  2. tending to associate closely with one’s own group and to avoid others

clannish (adj.)
1748, “pertaining to a clan; disposed to adhere closely to one another, imbued with prejudices, narrow or restricted in social interests and feeling,” from clan + -ish. Related: Clannishly; clannishness.


clarion

[ˈklæriən]

  1. (소리) 명쾌한, 낭랑한
  2. *클라리온 (명쾌한 음색을 가진 옛 나팔)

noun

  1. a trumpet of the Middle Ages producing clear, sharp, shrill tones
  2. OLD-FASHIONED
    the sound of a clarion, or a sound like this

adjective

  1. clear, sharp, and ringing

verb transitive

  1. to announce forcefully or loudly

clarion (n.)
“small, high-pitched trumpet,” early 14c., from Old French clarion “(high-pitched) trumpet, bugle” and directly from Medieval Latin clarionem (nominative clario) “a trumpet,” from Latin clarus “clear” (see clear (adj.)). Clarion call in the figurative sense “call to battle” is attested from 1838 (clarion’s call is from 1807).


cleave

[kliv]

  1. 쪼개다, 틈을 내다
  2. 지키다, 고수하다

verb transitive

  1. to divide by a blow, as with an ax; split
  2. to pierce
  3. to sever; disunite

verb intransitive

  1. to split; separate; fall apart
  2. to make one’s way by or as by cutting

verb intransitive

  1. to adhere; cling (to)
  2. to be faithful (to)

cleave (v.1)
“to split, part or divide by force,” Old English cleofan, cleven, cliven “to split, separate” (class II strong verb, past tense cleaf, past participle clofen), from Proto-Germanic *kleuban (source also of Old Saxon klioban, Old Norse kljufa, Danish klöve, Dutch kloven, Old High German klioban, German klieben “to cleave, split”), from PIE root *gleubh- “to tear apart, cleave.”

Past tense form clave is recorded in Northern writers from 14c. and was used with both verbs (see cleave (v.2)), apparently by analogy with other Middle English strong verbs. Clave was common to c. 1600 and still alive at the time of the KJV; weak past tense cleaved for this verb also emerged in 14c.; cleft is still later. The past participle cloven survives, though mostly in compounds.

cleave (v.2)
“to adhere, cling,” Middle English cleven, clevien, cliven, from Old English clifian, cleofian “to stick fast, adhere,” also figurative, from West Germanic *klibajan (source also of Old Saxon klibon, Old High German kliban, Dutch kleven, Old High German kleben, German kleben “to stick, cling, adhere”), from PIE *gloi- “to stick” (see clay).

The confusion was less in Old English when cleave (v.1) was a class 2 strong verb; but it has grown since cleave (v.1) weakened, which may be why both are largely superseded by stick (v.) and split (v.).


clemency

[ˈklɛmənsi]

  1. 자비, 관대함

noun

  1. forbearance, leniency, or mercy, as toward an offender or enemy
  2. a merciful or lenient act
  3. mildness, as of weather

clemency (n.)
1550s, “mildness or gentleness shown in exercise of authority,” from Latin clementia “calmness, gentleness,” from clemens “calm, mild,” related to clinare “to lean,” often said to be from PIE root *klei- “to lean” + participial suffix -menos (also in alumnus). For sense evolution, compare inclined in secondary meaning “disposed favorably.” But de Vaan is dubious on phonological grounds.

Earlier in same sense was clemence (late 15c.). Meaning “mildness of weather or climate” is 1660s (a sense also in Latin); clement (adj.) is older in both senses (late 15c. and 1620s respectively) but now is used only in negation and only of the weather.


cliche

[kliˈʃeɪ]

  1. 진부한 표현

noun

  1. Archaic
    a stereotype printing plate
  2. an expression or idea that has become trite

cliche (n.)
1825, “electrotype, stereotype,” from French cliché, a technical word in printer’s jargon for “stereotype block,” noun use of past participle of clicher “to click” (18c.), supposedly echoic of the sound of a mold striking metal (compare native click).

Figurative extension to “trite phrase, worn-out expression” is first attested 1888, via the notion of the metal plate from which a print or design could be reproduced endlessly without variety, paralleling the sense evolution of stereotype. But this sense was not common in English until the 1920s, when it was identified as a French idiom. Related: Cliched (1928).


clinch

[klɪntʃ]

  1. (논쟁) 결론을 내다, (거래) 성사시키다

verb transitive

  1. to secure (a nail, bolt, etc. that has been driven through something) by bending or flattening the projecting end
  2. to fasten firmly together by this means
    1. to settle (an argument, bargain, etc.) definitely
    2. to make sure of winning; win conclusively
  3. to settle (an argument, bargain, etc.) definitely
  4. to make sure of winning; win conclusively

verb intransitive

  1. US
    to grip the opponent’s body with one or both arms so as to hinder punching effectiveness
  2. US
    to embrace

noun

    1. a fastening, as with a clinched nail
    2. the bent or flattened part of a clinched nail, bolt, etc.
  1. a fastening, as with a clinched nail
  2. the bent or flattened part of a clinched nail, bolt, etc.
  3. US
    an act of clinching
  4. US
    an embrace

clinch (n.)
1620s, “method of fastening ropes,” nautical, from clinch (v.). Also compare clench (n.). Meaning “a fastening by bending a driven nail” is from 1650s. In pugilism, “grappling at close quarters,” from 1875.

clinch (v.)
1560s, “fix securely (a driven nail) by bending and beating it back,” a variant of clench (q.v.). The sense of “settle decisively” is first recorded 1716, from the notion of “clinching” the point of a nail to keep it fast. Boxing sense is from 1860. Related: Clinched; clinching.


clout

[klaʊt]

  1. 영향력, 힘

noun

  1. Chiefly
  1. a piece of cloth or leather for patching
  2. any piece of cloth, esp. one for cleaning; rag
  • a piece of cloth or leather for patching
  • any piece of cloth, esp. one for cleaning; rag
  • a blow, with or as with the hand; rap
  • US
    1. a hard hit, as in baseball
    2. power or influence; esp., political power
  • a hard hit, as in baseball
  • power or influence; esp., political power
  • Archery
    a form of long-distance shooting in which archers aim at a large target laid out on the ground with a flag in the center

verb transitive

  1. Chiefly
    to patch or mend coarsely
  2. Informal
    to strike, as with the hand
  3. Informal
    to hit (a ball) hard

clout (n.)
Old English clut “lump of something,” also “patch of cloth put over a hole to mend it,” from Proto-Germanic *klutaz (source also of Old Norse klute “kerchief,” Danish klud “rag, tatter,” Frisian klut “lump,” Dutch kluit “clod, lump”); perhaps related to clot (v.).

In later use “a handkerchief,” also “a woman’s sanitary napkin.” Sense of “a blow” is from early 14c., from the verb. Sense of “personal influence” is 1958, on the notion of “punch, force.”

clout (v.)
“to beat, strike with the hand,” early 14c., from clout (n.), perhaps on the notion of hitting someone with a lump of something, or from the “patch of cloth” sense of that word (compare clout (v.) “to patch, mend,” mid-14c.). Related: Clouted; clouting.


coagulate

[koʊˈægjuˌleɪt]

  1. (혈액 등) 응고하다

verb transitive

  1. to cause (a liquid) to become a soft, semisolid mass; curdle; clot

verb intransitive

  1. to become coagulated

coagulate (v.)
early 15c., “to clot, congeal, become curdled, change from a liquid into a thickened mass; to make to clot,” from Latin coagulatus, past participle of coagulare “to cause to curdle,” from cogere “to curdle, collect” (see cogent). The earlier verb was coagule, c. 1400, from Old French coaguler and directly from Latin. Related: Coagulated; coagulating.


coalesce

[ˌkoʊəˈlɛs]

  1. 합쳐지다, 하나가 되다

verb intransitive

  1. to grow together, as the halves of a broken bone
  2. to unite or merge into a single body, group, or mass

coalesce (v.)
1540s, “grow together, unite by growing into one body,” from Latin coalescere “unite, grow together, become one in growth,” from assimilated form of com- “together” (see co-) + alescere “be nourished,” hence, “increase, grow up,” inchoative of alere “to suckle, nourish,” from PIE root *al- (2) “to grow, nourish.” Related: Coalesced; coalescing; coalescence; coalescent.


coarse

[kɔrs]

  1. 조악한, 거친, (입자) 굵은
  2. 세련되지 않은, 저속한

adjective

  1. of inferior or poor quality; common
  2. consisting of rather large elements or particles
  3. not fine or delicate in texture, structure, form, etc.; rough; harsh
  4. for rough or crude work or results
  5. lacking in refinement or good taste; vulgar; crude

coarse (adj.)
early 15c., cors “ordinary” (modern spelling is from late 16c.), probably adjectival use of noun cours (see course (n.)). Originally referring to rough cloth for ordinary wear, the sense of “rude, vulgar, unpolished” developed by c. 1500 and that of “obscene” by 1711.

Perhaps via the notion of “in regular or natural order,” hence “common, vulgar” (compare the development of mean (adj.), also ornery from ordinary). Or it might be via the clothing sense, and the notion of “wanting fineness of texture or elegance of form.” Or both, and there might be also an influence, via metathesis, of French gros (see gross (adj.)), which underwent a similar sense development. Related: Coarsely; coarseness.


coax

[koʊks]

  1. 감언으로 꼬셔서 ~하게 하다

verb transitive

  1. to induce or try to induce to do something; (seek to) persuade by soothing words, an ingratiating manner, etc.; wheedle
  2. to get by coaxing

verb intransitive

  1. to use gentle persuasion, urging, etc.

coax (v.)
1660s, “lure with flattery and fondling,” also in early use “treat endearingly” (1580s); “make a fool of, impose upon” (1670s), probably derived from slang phrases such as make a coax of, from noun coax, cox, cokes “a fool, ninny, simpleton” (1560s), which is of obscure origin, perhaps related to cock (n.1) in some sense. OED speculates that the verb was in vulgar use long before it appeared in writing, thus the order of appearance of the senses is not that of the sense development. Meaning “to manage or guide carefully” is from 1841. Related: Coaxed; coaxing.


coddle

[ˈkɑdəl]

  1. 관대하게/너그럽게 대하다, 버릇없이 기르다

verb transitive

  1. to cook (esp. eggs in the shell) gently by heating in water not quite at boiling temperature
  2. to treat (an invalid, baby, etc.) tenderly

coddle (v.)
c. 1600, “boil gently,” probably from caudle (n.) “warm drink for invalids” (c. 1300), from Anglo-French caudel (c. 1300), ultimately from Latin calidium “warm drink, warm wine and water,” neuter of calidus “hot,” from calere “be warm” (from PIE root *kele- (1) “warm”).

The verb meaning “treat tenderly, make effeminate by pampering” first recorded 1815 (in Jane Austen’s “Emma”), but the connection to the other word is uncertain; it might as well derive from caudle. Related: Coddled; coddling.


codify

[ˈkɑdəˌfaɪ; ˈkoʊdəˌfaɪ]

  1. 성문화하다, 체계화하다

verb transitive

  1. to arrange (laws, rules, etc.) systematically

codify (v.)
“to reduce to a code or digest, to arrange or systematize,” c. 1800 (Bentham), from code (n.) + -ify. Related: codified; codifying.


coerce

[koʊˈɜrs]

  1. 강요하다, 강제하다

verb transitive

  1. to restrain or constrain by force, esp. by legal authority; curb
  2. to force or compel, as by threats, to do something
  3. to bring about by using force; enforce

coerce (v.)
mid-15c., cohercen, “restrain or constrain by force of law or authority,” from Old French cohercier, from Latin coercere “to control, restrain, shut up together,” from assimilated form of com- “together” (see co-) + arcere “to enclose, confine, contain, ward off,” from PIE *ark- “to hold, contain, guard” (see arcane). The unetymological -h- was perhaps by influence of cohere. Related: Coerced; coercing. No record of the word between late 15c. and mid-17c.; its reappearance 1650s is perhaps a back-formation from coercion.


cogent

[ˈkoʊdʒənt]

  1. 설득력 있는

adjective

  1. forceful and to the point, as a reason or argument; compelling; convincing

cogent (adj.)
“compelling assent or conviction,” 1650s, from French cogent “necessary, urgent” (14c.), from Latin cogentem (nominative cogens), present participle of cogere “to curdle; to compel; to collect,” literally “to drive together,” from assimilated form of com “together” (see co-) + agere “to set in motion, drive, drive forward; to do, perform” (from PIE root *ag- “to drive, draw out or forth, move”). Related: Cogently.


cognizant

[ˈkɑgnəzənt]

  1. 알고 있는, 지각하고 잇는

adjective

  1. having cognizance; aware or informed (of something)

cognizant (adj.)
“having knowledge;” in law, “competent to take legal or judicial notice,” 1744, back-formation from cognizance.


coherent

[koʊˈhɪrənt; koʊˈhɛrənt]

  1. (글) 일관성 있는, 조리가 맞는
  2. (사람) 조리있는

adjective

  1. sticking together; having cohesion
  2. having coherence; logically connected; consistent; clearly articulated
  3. capable of logical, intelligible speech, thought, etc.
  4. Physics
    exhibiting coherence

coherent (adj.)
1550s, “harmonious;” 1570s, “sticking together,” also “connected, consistent” (of speech, thought, etc.), from Middle French cohérent (16c.), from Latin cohaerentem (nominative cohaerens), present participle of cohaerere “cohere,” from assimilated form of com “together” (see co-) + haerere “to adhere, stick” (see hesitation).


coincide

[ˌkoʊɪnˈsaɪd]

  1. 동시에 발생하다
  2. 일치하다

verb intransitive

  1. to take up the same place in space; be exactly alike in shape, position, and area
  2. to occur at the same time; take up the same period of time
  3. to hold equivalent positions, as on a scale
  4. to be identical; correspond exactly
  5. to be in accord; agree

coincide (v.)
1705, “be identical in substance or nature;” 1715, “occupy the same space, agree in position,” from Medieval Latin coincidere (used in astrology), literally “to fall upon together,” from assimilated form of  Latin com “with, together” (see com-) + incidere “to fall upon” (from in- “upon” + combining form of cadere “to fall,” from PIE root *kad- “to fall”). From 1809 as “occur at the same time.” Related: Coincided; coinciding. Latin coincidere was used as a verb in English from 1640s.


coincidence

[koʊˈɪnsədəns]

  1. 우연의 일치

noun

  1. the fact or condition of coinciding
  2. an accidental and remarkable occurrence of events or ideas at the same time, suggesting but lacking a causal relationship

coincidence (n.)
c. 1600, “exact correspondence in substance or nature,” from French coincidence, from coincider, from Medieval Latin coincidere, literally “to fall upon together,” from assimilated form of  Latin com “with, together” (see com-) + incidere “to fall upon” (from in- “upon” + combining form of cadere “to fall,” from PIE root *kad- “to fall”).

From 1640s as “occurrence or existence during the same time.” Meaning “a concurrence of events with no apparent connection, accidental or incidental agreement” is from 1680s, perhaps first in writings of Sir Thomas Browne.


collaborate

[kəˈlæbəˌreɪt]

  1. 공동 작업하다, 협력하다
  2. 부역하다

verb intransitive

  1. to work together, esp. in some literary, artistic, or scientific undertaking
  2. to cooperate with an enemy invader

collaborate (v.)
1871, “to work with another or others,” a back-formation from collaborator or else modeled on French collaborer or directly from Late Latin collaboratus, past participle of collaborare. Given a bad sense in World War II: “Cooperate traitorously with an occupying enemy.” Related: Collaborated; collaborating.


collegiality

[kəˌlidʒiˈæləti]

  1. (동료간의) 협조, 협력

noun

  1. the sharing of authority among colleagues
  2. Roman Catholic
    Church

    the principle that authority is shared by the pope and the bishops
  3. considerate and respectful conduct among colleagues or an atmosphere, relationship, etc. characterized by this

collude

[kəˈlud]

  1. 결탁, 공모하다

verb intransitive

  1. to act in collusion or conspire, esp. for a fraudulent purpose

collude (v.)
“conspire in fraud or deception,” 1520s, from Latin colludere “act collusively,” literally “to play with” (see collusion). Related: Colluded; colluder; colluding.


color

[ˈkʌlər]

  1. (부정적인) 영향을 끼치다, 왜곡시키다
  2. (감정이 목소리 등에) 가득하다

noun

  1. the sensation resulting from stimulation of the retina of the eye by light waves of certain lengths
  2. the property of reflecting light of a particular wavelength: the distinct colors of the spectrum are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, each of these shading into the next; the primary colors of the spectrum are red, green, and blue, the light beams of which variously combined can produce any of the colors
  3. any coloring matter; dye; pigment; paint: the primary colors of paints, pigments, etc. are red, yellow, and blue, which, when mixed in various ways, produce the secondary colors (green, orange, purple, etc.): black, white, and gray are often called colors (achromatic colors), although black is caused by the complete absorption of light rays, white by the reflection of all the rays that produce color, and gray by an imperfect absorption of all these rays
  4. any color other than black, white, or gray; chromatic color: color is distinguished by the qualities of hue (as red, brown, yellow, etc.), lightness (for pigmented surfaces) or brightness (for light itself), and saturation (the degree of intensity of a hue)
  5. color of the face; esp., a healthy rosiness or a blush
  6. the color of a person’s skin
  7. skin pigmentation of a particular people or racial group, esp. when other than white
  8. [pl.]
    a colored badge, ribbon, costume, etc. that identifies the wearer
  9. [pl.]
    1. a flag or banner of a country, regiment, etc.
    2. the armed forces of a country, symbolized by the flag
  10. a flag or banner of a country, regiment, etc.
  11. the armed forces of a country, symbolized by the flag
  12. [pl.]
    the side that a person is on; position or opinion
  13. outward appearance or semblance; plausibility
  14. appearance of truth, likelihood, validity, or right; justification
  15. general nature; character
  16. see also
    vivid quality or character, as in a personality, literary work, etc.
  17. Art
    the way of using color, esp. to gain a total effect
  18. Law
    an apparent or prima-facie right
  19. US
    a trace of gold found in panning
  20. Music
    1. timbre, as of a voice or instrument; tone color
    2. elaborate ornamentation
  21. timbre, as of a voice or instrument; tone color
  22. elaborate ornamentation
  23. Particle Physics
    a unique force or charge on each type of quark that controls how quarks combine to form hadrons: although called red, green, and blue, they are not related to visual colors
  24. Photography
    reproduction of images in chromatic colors rather than in black, white, and gray
  25. Television
    colorful details, background data, etc. supplied by a sports commentator between play-by-play descriptions of the action

adjective

  1. Television
    designating or of a sports commentator who supplies color (sense 21)

verb transitive

  1. to give color to; impregnate or cover with color, as with paint, stain, or dye
  2. to change the color of
  3. to give a pleasing, convincing, or reasonable appearance to; make plausible
  4. to alter or influence to some degree, as by distortion or exaggeration

verb intransitive

  1. to become colored
  2. to change color, as ripening fruit
  3. to blush or flush
  4. to engage in the child’s pastime of drawing or coloring pictures with wax crayons, etc.

color (n.)
early 13c., “skin color, complexion,” from Anglo-French culur, coulour, Old French color “color, complexion, appearance” (Modern French couleur), from Latin color “color of the skin; color in general, hue; appearance,” from Old Latin colos, originally “a covering” (akin to celare “to hide, conceal”), from PIE root *kel-(1) “to cover, conceal, save.” Old English words for “color” were hiw (“hue”), bleo. For sense evolution, compare Sanskrit varnah “covering, color,” which is related to vrnoti “covers,” and also see chroma.

Colour was the usual English spelling from 14c., from Anglo-French. Classical correction made color an alternative from 15c., and that spelling became established in the U.S. (see -or).

Meaning “a hue or tint, a visible color, the color of something” is from c. 1300. As “color as an inherent property of matter, that quality of a thing or appearance which is perceived by the eye alone,” from late 14c. From early 14c. as “a coloring matter, pigment, dye.” From mid-14c. as “kind, sort, variety, description.” From late 14c. in figurative sense of “stylistic device, embellishment. From c. 1300 as “a reason or argument advanced by way of justifying, explaining, or excusing an action,” hence “specious reason or argument, that which hides the real character of something” (late 14c.).

From c. 1300 as “distinctive mark of identification” (as of a badge or insignia or livery, later of a prize-fighter, horse-rider, etc.), originally in reference to a coat of arms. Hence figurative sense as in show one’s (true) colors “reveal one’s opinions or intentions;” compare colors.

In reference to “the hue of the darker (as distinguished from the ‘white’) varieties of mankind” [OED], attested from 1792, in people of colour, in translations from French in reference to the French colony of Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti) and there meaning “mulattoes.”

In reference to musical tone from 1590s. Color-scheme is from 1860. Color-coded is by 1943, in reference to wiring in radios and military aircraft. Color-line in reference to social and legal discrimination by race in the U.S. is from 1875, originally referring to Southern whites voting in unity and taking back control of state governments during Reconstruction (it had been called white line about a year earlier, and with more accuracy).

color (v.)
late 14c., colouren, “to make (something) a certain color, to give or apply color to,” also figurative “to use (words) to a certain effect; to make (something) appear different from reality or better than it is,” from Old French culurer, colorer, and directly from Latin colorare, from color (see color (n.)). Intransitive sense “become red in the face” is from 1721. Related: Colored; coloring.


combustible

[kəmˈbʌstəbəl]

  1. 가연성의, 불붙기 쉬운

adjective

  1. that catches fire and burns easily; flammable
  2. easily aroused; excitable; fiery

noun

  1. a flammable substance

combustible (adj.)
“capable of burning,” 1520s, from Middle French combustible, or directly from Late Latin combustibilis, from Latin combustus, past participle of combuere “to burn up, consume” (see combustion). Figurative sense “easily excited” is from 1640s. As a noun, “a substance that will burn,” from 1680s. Related: Combustibility (late 15c.).


comity

[ˈkɑməti]

  1. 우호적인 관계
  2. 상호간의 예절

noun

  1. courteous behavior; politeness; civility
  2. comity of nations
  3. agreement among cooperating Christian denominations to avoid duplication of churches, missions, etc. in specific areas
  4. Law
    the principle by which the courts of one jurisdiction may give effect to the laws and decisions of another, or may stay their own proceedings in deference to those in another jurisdiction

comity (n.)
early 15c., “association,” from French comité, from Latin comitas “courtesy, friendliness, kindness, affability,” from comis “courteous, friendly, kind,” from PIE *ko(m)smi-, literally “smiling with,” from *kom- “together” + root *smei- “to laugh, smile” (see smile (v.)).

Meaning “courtesy, civility” in English is from 1540s. Phrase comity of nations attested from 1862: “The obligation recognized by civilized nations to respect each other’s laws and usages as far as their separate interests allow.”


commend

[kəˈmɛnd]

  1. 칭찬하다
  2. 추천하다
  3. 위탁하다

verb transitive

  1. to put in the care of another; entrust
  2. to mention as worthy of attention; recommend
  3. to express approval of; praise
  4. Archaic
    to transmit the kind regards of

commend (v.)
mid-14c., comenden, “praise, mention approvingly,” from Latin commendare “to commit to the care or keeping (of someone), to entrust to; to commit to writing;” hence “to set off, render agreeable, praise,” from com-, here probably an intensive prefix (see com-), + mandare “to commit to one’s charge” (see mandate (n.)). A doublet of command.

Sense of “commit, deliver with confidence” in English is from late 14c. Meaning “bring to mind, send the greeting of” is from c. 1400. The “praise” sense is from the notion of “present as worthy of notice or regard;” also in some cases probably a shortening of recommend. Related: Commended; commending.


commensurate

[kəˈmɛnʃʊrɪt; kəˈmɛnsərɪt]

  1. 동등한, 같은 크기의
  2. 비례하는

adjective

  1. equal in measure or size; coextensive
  2. corresponding in extent or degree; proportionate
  3. commensurable (sense 1)

commensurate (adj.)
1640s, “corresponding in amount, degree, or magnitude,” also “of equal size” (on the notion of “having the same boundaries”), from Late Latin commensuratus, from Latin com “with, together” (see com-) + Late Latin mensuratus, past participle of mensurare “to measure,” from Latin mensura “a measuring, a measurement; thing to measure by,” from mensus, past participle of metiri “to measure,” from PIE root *me- (2) “to measure.” Meaning “reducible to a common measure, commensurable” is from 1680s. Related: Commensurately.


commiserate

[kəˈmɪzərˌeɪt]

  1. 위로, 동정을 표하다

verb transitive

  1. to feel or show sorrow or pity for

verb intransitive

  1. to condole or sympathize (with)

commiserate (v.)
“feel sorrow, regret, or compassion for through sympathy,” c. 1600, from Latin commiseratus, past participle of commiserari “to pity, bewail,” from com-, here probably an intensive prefix (see com-) + miserari “bewail, lament,” from miser “wretched” (see miser). Related: Commiserated; commiserating; commiserable. An Old English loan-translation of commiserari was efensargian.


commitment

[kəˈmɪtmənt]

  1. 약속
  2. 책임, 의무
  3. 헌신

noun

  1. a committing or being committed
  2. official consignment by court order of a person as to prison or a mental hospital
  3. a pledge or promise to do something
  4. dedication to a long-term course of action; engagement; involvement
  5. a financial liability undertaken, as an agreement to buy or sell securities
  6. the act of sending proposed legislation to a committee

commitment (n.)
1610s, “action of officially consigning to the custody of the state,” from commit + -ment. (Anglo-French had commettement.) Meaning “the pledging or engaging of oneself, a pledge, a promise” is attested from 1793; hence, “an obligation, an engagement” (1864).


commodious

[kəˈmoʊdiəs]

  1. 넓은, 널찍한

adjective

  1. offering plenty of room; spacious; roomy

commodious (adj.)
early 15c., “beneficial, convenient,” from Old French commodios and directly from Medieval Latin commodiosus “convenient, useful,” from Latin commodus “proper, fit, appropriate, convenient, satisfactory,”  from com-, here probably an intensive prefix (see com-), + modus “measure, manner” (from PIE root *med- “take appropriate measures”). Meaning “conveniently roomy, spacious” first attested 1550s. Related: Commodiously; commodiousness.


commonplace

[ˈkɑmənˌpleɪs]

  1. 진부한
  2. 진부한 문구

noun

  1. Obsolete
    a passage marked for reference or included in a commonplace book
  2. a trite or obvious remark; truism; platitude
  3. anything common or ordinary

adjective

  1. neither new nor interesting; obvious or ordinary

commonplace (n.)
1540s, “a statement generally accepted,” a literal translation of Latin locus communis, itself a translation of Greek koinos topos “general topic,” in logic, “general theme applicable to many particular cases.” See common (adj.) + place (n.). Meaning “memorandum of something that is likely to be again referred to, striking or notable passage” is from 1560s; hence commonplace-book (1570s) in which such were written down. Meaning “well-known, customary, or obvious remark” is from 1550s. The adjectival sense of “having nothing original” dates from c. 1600.


compatible

[kəmˈpætəbəl]

  1. 양립하는, 조화를 이루는

adjective

    1. capable of living together harmoniously or getting along well together (with)
    2. in agreement; congruent (with)
  1. capable of living together harmoniously or getting along well together (with)
  2. in agreement; congruent (with)
    1. that can work well together, get along well together, combine well, etc.
    2. that can function or be used together without change or alteration
  3. that can work well together, get along well together, combine well, etc.
  4. that can function or be used together without change or alteration
  5. that can be mixed without reacting chemically or interfering with one another’s action or state: said of drugs, insecticides, etc.
  6. Botany
    that can be cross-fertilized or grafted readily
  7. Computing
    1. designating or of
    2. computer components, software, etc. that can be used with a specified computer or computer system
    3. computers or computer systems that can use the same components, software, etc.
  8. often in hyphenated compounds
    computer components, software, etc. that can be used with a specified computer or computer system
  9. computers or computer systems that can use the same components, software, etc.

compatible (adj.)
“capable of coexisting in harmony, reconcilable,” mid-15c., from Medieval Latin compatibilis, from Late Latin compati (see compassion). Related: Compatibly; compatibility.


compelling

[kəmˈpɛlɪŋ]

  1. 주목하지 않을 수 없는, 매우 흥미로운
  2. 설득력있는

adjective

  1. that compels
  2. irresistibly or keenly interesting, attractive, etc.; captivating

compelling (adj.)
c. 1600, “that compels,” present-participle adjective from compel. Meaning “demanding attention” is from 1901. Related: Compellingly.


compendious

[kəmˈpɛndiəs]

  1. 포괄적이면서도 간결한

adjective

  1. containing all the essentials in a brief form; concise but comprehensive

compendious (adj.)
“concise, abridged but comprehensive,” late 14c., from Latin compendiosus “advantageous; abridged, brief,” from compendium “a shortening” (see compendium). Related: Compendiously.


compensate

[ˈkɑmpənˌseɪt]

  1. 보상, 보완, 보충하다
  2. 상쇄하다

verb transitive

  1. Rare
    to make up for; be a counterbalance to in weight, force, etc.
  2. to make equivalent or suitable return to; recompense; pay
  3. Mechanics
    to counteract or make allowance for (a variation)

verb intransitive

  1. to make or serve as compensation or amends (for)
  2. Psychology
    to engage in compensation

compensate (v.)
1640s, “to be equivalent;” 1650s, “to counterbalance, make up for, give a substitute of equal value to,” from Latin compensatus, past participle of compensare “to weigh one thing (against another),” thus, “to counterbalance,” etymologically “to weigh together,” from com “with, together” (see com-) + pensare, frequentative of pendere “to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay” (from PIE root *(s)pen- “to draw, stretch, spin”). Meaning “to recompense, remunerate” is from 1814. The earlier verb in English was compense (late 14c.). Related: Compensated; compensating.


complacent

[kəmˈpleɪsənt]

  1. 자기만족에 빠진, 자아도취에 빠진

adjective

  1. satisfied; esp., self-satisfied, or smug
  2. affable; complaisant

complacent (adj.)
1650s, “pleasing,” from Latin complacentem (nominative complacens) “very pleasing,” present participle of complacere “be very pleasing” (see complacence). Meaning “pleased with oneself, self-satisfied” is from 1767. Sense of “civil, kindly, disposed to give pleasure” is from 1790. Related: Complacently.


complaisant

[kəmˈpleɪzənt; kəmpleɪsənt; also ˈkɑmpləˌzænt]

  1. 공손한, 정중한, 유순한

adjective

  1. willing to please; affably agreeable; obliging

complaisant (adj.)
1640s, “civil and gracious, desiring to please;” 1670s, “disposed to comply with another’s wishes;” from French complaisant “pleasing, obliging, gracious” (16c.), present participle of complaire “acquiesce to please,” from Latin complacere “be very pleasing to” (see complacent, its doublet, with which it overlapped in sense until mid-19c.). The French spelling possibly was influenced by Old French plaire “gratify.” Related: Complaisantly.


complement

[ˈkɑmpləmənt; for v .; ˈkɑmpləˌmɛnt]

  1. 보완하다, 보충하다, 완전하게 하다

noun

  1. that which completes or brings to perfection
  2. the amount or number needed to fill or complete
  3. a complete set; entirety
  4. something added to complete a whole; either of two parts that complete each other
  5. Grammar
    a word or group of words that, with the verb, completes the meaning and syntactic structure of the predicate (Ex.: foreman in “make him foreman,” paid in “he expects to get paid”)
  6. Immunology
    a complex series of proteins in the blood plasma that acts with specific antibodies to destroy corresponding antigens, as bacteria or foreign proteins
  7. Ancient Mathematics
    1. the number of degrees that must be added to a given angle or arc to make it equal 90 degrees
    2. the subset which must be added to any given subset to yield the original set
  8. the number of degrees that must be added to a given angle or arc to make it equal 90 degrees
  9. the subset which must be added to any given subset to yield the original set
  10. Music
    the difference between a given interval and the complete octave
  11. Nautical
    all of a ship’s personnel, including the officers, required to operate a ship

verb transitive

  1. to make complete; be a complement to

complement (n.)
late 14c., “means of completing; that which completes; what is needed to complete or fill up,” from Old French compliement “accomplishment, fulfillment” (14c., Modern French complément), from Latin complementum “that which fills up or completes,” from complere “fill up,” from com-, here probably as an intensive prefix (see com-), + plere “to fill” (from PIE root *pele- (1) “to fill”).

From c. 1600 as “full quality or number, full amount;” musical sense of “simple interval that completes an octave from another simple interval” is from 1873. In 16c. also having senses which were taken up c. 1650-1725 by compliment.

complement (v.)
“make complete,” 1640s, from complement (n.). Earlier in a now-obsolete sense of “exchange courtesies” (1610s), from complement (n.) in a 16c. sense “that which is added, not as necessary, but as ornamental,” now going with compliment. Related: Complemented; complementing.


complexion

[kəmˈplɛkʃən]

  1. 특징, 양상
  2. 안색

noun

  1. Obsolete
    1. the combination of the qualities of cold, heat, dryness, and moisture, or of the four humors, in certain proportions believed to determine the temperament and constitution of the body
    2. the temperament or constitution of the body
  2. Obsolete
    the combination of the qualities of cold, heat, dryness, and moisture, or of the four humors, in certain proportions believed to determine the temperament and constitution of the body
  3. Obsolete
    the temperament or constitution of the body
  4. the color, texture, and general appearance of the skin, esp. of the face
  5. general appearance or nature; character; aspect

complexion (n.)
mid-14c., complexioun, “temperament, natural disposition of body or mind,” from Old French complexion, complession “combination of humors,” hence “temperament, character, make-up,” from Latin complexionem (nominative complexio) “combination” (in Late Latin, “physical constitution”), from complexus “surrounding, encompassing,” past participle of complecti “to encircle, embrace,” in transferred use, “to hold fast, master, comprehend,” from com “with, together” (see com-) + plectere “to weave, braid, twine, entwine,” from PIE *plek-to-, suffixed form of root *plek- “to plait.”

The Middle English sense is from the notion of bodily constitution or general nature resulting from blending of the four primary qualities (hot, cold, dry, moist) or humors (blood, phlegm, choler, black choler). The specific meaning “color or hue of the skin of the face” developed by mid-15c. In medieval physiology, the color of the face was believed to indicate temperament or health. The word rarely is used in the sense of “state of being complex.”


compliant

[kəmplaɪənt]

  1. 순응하는, 따르는

adjective

  1. complying or tending to comply; yielding; submissive

compliant (adj.)
“yielding to desire, ready to accommodate,” 1640s, from comply + -ant.


composure

[kəmˈpoʊʒər]

  1. 평상심

noun

  1. calmness of mind or manner; tranquillity; self-possession

composure (n.)
c. 1600, “composition, act of composing, constructing, arrangement” (also, in early use, with many senses now given to compound (n.2)), from compose + -ure. Sense of “tranquility, calmness, composed state of mind” is first recorded 1660s, from composed“calm” (c. 1600). For sense, compare colloquial fall apart “lose one’s composure.”


compound

[kɑmˈpaʊnd; ˈkɑmˌpaʊnd; kəmˈpaʊnd; for adj. usually & for n. always, ˈkɑmˌpaʊnd]

  1. 약화시키다
  2. 구성하다

verb transitive

  1. to mix or combine
  2. to make by combining parts or elements
  3. to settle by mutual agreement; specif., to settle (a debt) by a compromise payment of less than the total claim
  4. to compute (interest) on the sum of the principal and the accumulated interest which has accrued at regular intervals
  5. to increase or intensify by adding new elements

verb intransitive

  1. to agree
  2. to compromise with a creditor
  3. to combine and form a compound

adjective

  1. made of two or more separate parts or elements

noun

  1. a thing formed by the mixture or combination of two or more parts or elements
  2. see also
    a substance containing two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
  3. English compounds are usually distinguished from phrases by reduced stress on one
    of the elements and by changes in meaning (Ex.: blackʹbird57426, blackʹ birdʹ; grandʹ-aunt57426, grandʹ auntʹ)

    a word composed of two or more base morphemes, whether hyphenated or not

noun

  1. kampong
  2. an enclosed space with a building or group of buildings within it

compound (adj.)
late 14c., originally compouned, “composed of two or more elements, mixed, blended,” past participle of compounen (see compound (v.)). Of flowers from 1660s; compound eye is attested from 1836; compound sentence, one consisting of two or more full clauses, is from 1772.

compound (n.1)
“enclosed residence,” 1670s, “the enclosure for a factory or settlement of Europeans in the East,” via Dutch (kampoeng) or Portuguese, from Malay (Austronesian) kampong “village, group of buildings.” Spelling influenced by compound (v.). Later used of South African diamond miners’ camps (1893), then of large fenced-in residences generally (1946).

compound (n.2)
“a compound thing, something produced by the combination of two or more ingredients,” mid-15c., from compound (adj.).

compound (v.)
late 14c., compounen, “to put together, to mix, to combine; to join, couple together,” from Old French compondre, componre “arrange, direct,” and directly from Latin componere “to put together,” from com “with, together” (see com-) + ponere “to place” (see position (n.)). The unetymological -d appeared 1500s in English by the same process  that yielded expound, propound, etc. Intransitive sense is from 1727. Related: Compounded; compounding.


compromise

[ˈkɑmprəˌmaɪz]

  1. (명예, 원칙) 약화시키다, 위태롭게하다, 훼손하다

noun

  1. a settlement in which each side gives up some demands or makes concessions
    1. an adjustment of opposing principles, systems, etc. by modifying some aspects of each
    2. the result of such an adjustment
  2. an adjustment of opposing principles, systems, etc. by modifying some aspects of each
  3. the result of such an adjustment
  4. something midway between two other things in quality, effect, etc.
    1. exposure, as of one’s reputation, to danger, suspicion, or disrepute
    2. a weakening, as of one’s principles
  5. exposure, as of one’s reputation, to danger, suspicion, or disrepute
  6. a weakening, as of one’s principles

verb transitive

  1. to settle or adjust by concessions on both sides
  2. to lay open to danger, suspicion, or disrepute
  3. to weaken or give up (one’s principles, ideals, etc.) as for reasons of expediency
  4. Medicine
    to weaken or otherwise impair

verb intransitive

  1. to make a compromise or compromises

compromise (n.)
early 15c., “a joint promise to abide by an arbiter’s decision,” from Old French compromis (13c.), from Late Latin compromissus, past participle of compromittere “to make a mutual promise” (to abide by the arbiter’s decision), from com “with, together” (see com-) + promittere “to send forth; let go; foretell; assure beforehand, promise,” from pro “before” (from PIE root *per- (1) “forward,” hence “in front of, before”) + mittere “to release, let go; send, throw” (see mission).

The sense of “a coming to terms, a settlement of differences by mutual concessions” (mid-15c.) is from extension to the settlement itself. The meaning “that which results from such an agreement” is from 1510s.

compromise (v.)
mid-15c., “to adjust or settle by mutual concessions,” also intransitive, “to make a compromise,” from compromise (n.). Meaning “expose to risk or hazard, endanger the reputation of” is from 1690s. Also formerly in the same sense was compromit (early 15c.), from Latin compromittere. Related: Compromised; compromising.


compunction

[kəmˈpʌŋkʃən]

  1. 양심의 가책, 뉘우침, 죄책감

noun

  1. a sharp feeling of uneasiness brought on by a sense of guilt; remorse
  2. a feeling of slight regret for something done

compunction (n.)
mid-14c., “remorse, contrition (for wrongdoing, as a means of attaining forgiveness of one;s sins),” from Old French compunction (12c., Modern French componction), from Late Latin compunctionem (nominative compunctio) “remorse; a stinging or pricking” (of the conscience), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin compungere “to severely prick, sting,” from com-, here probably an intensive prefix (see com-), + pungere “to prick, pierce” (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- “to prick”). The Latin word was used in a figurative sense by early Church writers. Originally a much more intense feeling, similar to “remorse,” or “contrition.”


comrade

[ˈkɑmˌræd; ˈkɑmrəd]

  1. 동료애, 우정

noun

  1. a friend; close companion
  2. used as a form of address, as in a Communist party
    a person who shares interests and activities in common with others; partner; associate
  3. [C-]
    a Communist; esp., a fellow Communist

comrade (n.)
1590s, “one who shares the same room,” hence “a close companion,” from Middle French camarade (16c.), from Spanish camarada “chamber mate,” or Italian camerata “a partner,” from Latin camera “vaulted room,

chamber” (see camera). In Spanish, a collective noun referring to one’s company. In 17c., sometimes jocularly misspelled comrogue. Used from 1884 by socialists and communists as a prefix to a surname to avoid “Mister” and other such titles. Related: Comradely; comradeship.


concede

[kənˈsid]

  1. (옳음을, 맞음을) 인정하다
  2. 양보하다

verb transitive

  1. to admit as true or valid; acknowledge
  2. to admit as certain or proper
  3. to grant as a right or privilege

verb intransitive

  1. to make a concession
  2. US
    to acknowledge defeat in an election

concede (v.)
1630s, “to make a concession of, yield up” (transitive), from Middle French concéder or directly from Latin concedere “give way, yield, go away, depart, retire,” figuratively “agree, consent, give precedence,” from con-, here probably an intensive prefix (see con-), + cedere “to go, grant, give way” (from PIE root *ked- “to go, yield”).

From 1640s as “to admit as true.” Intransitive sense “accept a disputed point, yield” is from 1780; especially “admit defeat” in an election (1824). Related: Conceded; conceding.


concerted

[kənˈsɜrtɪd]

  1. 협동/협의에 의한

adjective

  1. mutually arranged or agreed upon; made or done together; combined
  2. Music
    arranged in parts

concerted (adj.)
“mutually agreed upon,” 1716, past-participle adjective from concern (v.).


conciliate

[kənˈsɪliˌeɪt]

  1. 달래다
  2. 화해시키다

verb transitive

  1. to win over; soothe the anger of; make friendly; placate
  2. to gain (regard, good will, etc.) by friendly acts
  3. Archaic
    to reconcile; make consistent

conciliate (v.)
“overcome distrust or hostility of by soothing and pacifying,” 1540s, from Latin conciliatus, past participle of conciliare “to bring together, unite in feelings, make friendly,” from concilium “a meeting, a gathering of people,” from PIE *kal-yo-, suffixed form of root *kele- (2) “to shout” (the notion is of “a calling together”). Related: Conciliated; conciliating; conciliary. The earlier verb was Middle English concile “to reconcile” (late 14c.).


concomitant

[kənˈkɑmətənt]

  1. 수반되는, 동시발생의

adjective

  1. accompanying; attendant

noun

  1. an accompanying or attendant condition, circumstance, or thing

concomitant (adj.)
“accompanying, conjoined with, concurrent, going together,” c. 1600, from French concomitant, from Late Latin concomitantem (nominative concomitans), present participle of concomitari “accompany, attend,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + comitari “join as a companion,” from comes (genitive comitis) “companion,” “companion, attendant,” the Roman term for a provincial governor, from com “with” (see com-) + stem of ire “to go” (from PIE root *ei- “to go”). Related: Concomitantly; concomitance (1530s).


concord

[ˈkɑŋkərd]

  1. 일치, 조화, 화합

noun

  1. US
    a large, dark-blue, cultivated variety of fox grape, used esp. for making juice and jelly
  2. US
    a wine made from this grape

 

  1. city in W Calif., near Oakland: pop. 122,000
  2. capital of N.H., on the Merrimack River: pop. 41,000
  3. town in E Mass., near Boston: pop. 17,000: with Lexington, site of the first battles of the Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775)

noun

  1. agreement; harmony
    1. friendly and peaceful relations, as between nations
    2. a treaty establishing this
  2. friendly and peaceful relations, as between nations
  3. a treaty establishing this
  4. Grammar
    agreement
  5. Music
    a combination of simultaneous and harmonious tones; consonance

concord (n.)
early 14c., “agreement between persons, union in opinions or sentiment, state of mutual friendship, amiability,” from Old French concorde (12c.) “concord, harmony, agreement, treaty,” from Latin concordia “agreement, union,” from concors (genitive concordis) “of the same mind,” literally “hearts together,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + cor (genitive cordis) “heart,” from PIE root *kerd- “heart.” Related: Concordial.

Meaning “a compact or agreement” is from late 15c. The village in Massachusetts (site of one of the opening battles of the Revolutionary War, April 19, 1775) was named in 1635, perhaps in reference to the peaceful dealings between the settlers and the local native tribes. The capital of New Hampshire was renamed for the Massachusetts town in 1763 (formerly it had been Pennycook, from a mangling of  a native Algonquian word meaning “descent”).

The Concord grape was so called by 1853, from the Massachusetts town, where it was bred for the local climate and promoted by farmer Ephraim Wales Bull. It is mentioned, but not named in the “New England Farmer” of Oct. 26, 1850, in its acknowledgements:

concord (v.)
late 14c., “reconcile, bring into harmony” (transitive); c. 1400, “agree, cooperate,” from Old French concorder and directly from Latin concordare “be of one mind,” from concors “of the same mind” (see concord (n.)). Related: Concorded; concording.


concur

[kənˈkɜr]

  1. 동의하다
  2. 동시에 발생하다

verb intransitive

  1. to occur at the same time; happen together; coincide
  2. to combine in having an effect; act together
  3. to agree (with); be in accord (in an opinion, etc.)

concur (v.)
early 15c., “collide, clash in hostility,” from Latin concurrere “to run together, assemble hurriedly; clash, fight,” in transferred use, “to happen at the same time,” from assimilated form of com “together” (see con-) + currere “to run” (from PIE root *kers- “to run”). Sense of “to coincide, happen at the same time” is 1590s; that of “to agree in opinion” is 1580s in English.


condensed

  1. 요약된, 간결한

condensed (adj.)
c. 1600, “made more dense, compressed, compacted,” past-participle adjective from condense. Of literary works, from 1823. Condensed milk attested by 1863. Condensed type (1854) is thinner than compressed.


condescend

[ˌkɑndɪˈsɛnd]

  1. (우월함을 드러내며) 생색내다
  2. 거들먹 거리다, 잘난 체하다
  3. 자신을 낮추다

verb intransitive

  1. to descend voluntarily to the level, regarded as lower, of the person one is dealing with; be graciously willing to do something regarded as beneath one’s dignity; deign
  2. to deal with others in a proud or haughty way
  3. Obsolete
    to make concessions; agree; assent

condescend (adj.)
mid-14c., of God, a king., etc., “make gracious allowance” for human frailty, etc.; late 14c., “yield deferentially,” from Old French condescendere (14c.) “to agree, consent, give in, yield, come down from one’s rights or claims,” and directly from Late Latin condescendere “to let oneself down, stoop,” in Medieval Latin “be complaisant or compliant,” from assimilated form of Latin com “with, together” (see con-) + descendere “to descend,” literally “climb down” (see descend).

Sense of “”voluntarily waive ceremony or dignity proper to one’s superior position or rank and willingly assume equality with inferiors” is from early 15c. Generally a positive word in Middle English; the modern, negative sense is from the notion of a mere show or assumed air of condescending (compare sense evolution in patronize). Also in Middle English “give one’s consent; come to mutual agreement; make a concession.”


condole

[kənˈdoʊl]

  1. 위로, 조의를 표하다

verb intransitive

  1. to express sympathy; mourn in sympathy; commiserate

verb transitive

  1. Archaic
    to show grief for

condole (v.)
1580s, “to sorrow or grieve over with another,” from Late Latin condolere “to suffer with another,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + dolere “to grieve” (see doleful). Meaning “express condolences, speak sympathetically to one in pain, grief, or misfortune” is recorded from 1650s. Related: Condoled; condoling.


condone

[kənˈdoʊn]

  1. 묵과하다, 용서하다

verb transitive

  1. to forgive, pardon, or overlook (an offense)

condone (v.)
1857, “to forgive or pardon” (something wrong), especially by implication, from Latin condonare “to give up, remit, permit,” from assimilated form of com-, here probably an intensive prefix (see con-), + donare “give as a gift,” from donum “gift” (from PIE root *do- “to give”).

It is attested from 1620s, but only as a dictionary word. In real-world use originally a legal term in the Matrimonial Causes Act, which made divorce a civil matter in Britain (see condonation). General sense of “tolerate, sanction” is by 1962. Related: Condoned; condoning.


conducive

[kənˈdusɪv; kənˈdjusɪv]

  1. 도움이 되는

adjective

  1. that conduces or contributes; tending or leading (to)

conducive (adj.)
“having the quality of promoting or furthering,” 1640s, from conduce + -ive. Related: Conduciveness.


confer

[kənˈfɜr]

  1. 부여하다, 수여하다

verb transitive

  1. to give, grant, or bestow
  2. Obsolete
    to compare

verb intransitive

  1. to have a conference or talk; meet for discussion; converse

confer (v.)
1530s, “examine by comparison;” 1540s (intransitive) “consult together on some special subject;” 1560s, “bestow as a gift or permanent possession,” from Old French conférer (14c.) “to give; to converse; to compare,” from Latin conferre “to bring together,” figuratively “to compare; consult, deliberate, talk over,” from assimilated form of com “together” (see con-) + ferre “to bear, carry,” from PIE root *bher- (1) “to carry,” also “to bear children.”

The sense of “taking counsel” led to conference. The oldest English meaning, that of “compare” (common 1530-c. 1650), is largely obsolete, but the abbreviation cf. still is used in this sense. Related: Conferred; conferring.


confidential

[ˌkɑnfəˈdɛnʃəl]

  1. 기밀의

adjective

  1. told in confidence; imparted in secret
  2. of or showing trust in another; confiding
  3. entrusted with private or secret matters

confidential (adj.)
1759, “indicating the confiding of a private intimacy,” from Latin confidentia (see confidence) + -al (1). Sense of “intended to be treated as private” is from 1773; that of “enjoying the confidence of another” is from 1805. Related: Confidentially.


configuration

[kənˌfɪgjəˈreɪʃən]

  1. 형상, 외형, 배열

noun

    1. arrangement of parts
    2. form or figure as determined by the arrangement of parts; contour; outline
  1. arrangement of parts
  2. form or figure as determined by the arrangement of parts; contour; outline
  3. Chemistry
    the structure of a compound, esp. in the spatial relation of atoms in the molecule
  4. gestalt
  5. Computing
    the way in which a computer and peripheral equipment are interconnected and programmed to operate as a system

configuration (n.)
“external form or shape resulting from the disposition and arrangement of parts,” 1550s, from Late Latin configurationem (nominative configuratio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin configurare “to fashion after a pattern,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + figurare “to form, shape,” from figura “a shape, form, figure” (from PIE root *dheigh- “to form, build”).


conflate

[kənˈfleɪt]

  1. 융합하다, 합체하다

verb transitive

  1. to combine or mix (two variant readings into a single text, etc.)

conflate (v.)
mid-15c., “to mold or cast from molten metal” (a sense now obsolete), from Latin conflatus, past participle of conflare “to blow up, kindle, light; bring together, compose,” also “to melt together,” literally “to blow together,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + flare “to blow” (from PIE root *bhle- “to blow”).

From c. 1600 as “to bring together from various sources.” In reference to text, “to form by inadvertent combination of two readings of the same words,” from 1885.


confluence

[ˈkɑnfluəns]

  1. 두 강의 합류 지점
  2. 합일, 융합

noun

  1. a flowing together, esp. of two or more streams
  2. the place where they join, or a stream formed in this way
  3. a coming together as of people; crowd; throng

confluence (n.)
early 15c., “a flowing together, especially of two or more streams,” from Late Latin confluentia, from Latin confluentem (nominative confluens), present participle of confluere “to flow together,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” (see con-) + fluere “to flow” (see fluent).